zostera marina pollination


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Bot. Differences in reproductive effort and sexual recruitment of the seagrass Zostera japonica between two geographic populations in northern China. Three sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected at each site for the determination of the grain size distribution using a laser diffraction analysis (Short and Coles, 2001). form seed banks of small seeds with hard shells that can remain dormant for long periods; whereas other species, such as Posidonia spp. Successful sexual recruitment is limited owing to low pollination rates, restricted pollen and seed dispersal, and low seed and seedling survival rates (Les, 1988; Laushman, 1993; Reusch, 2003). 162, 295–309. seagrass meadow, Queensland Australia. For each sample, the total number of shoots (including reproductive and vegetative shoots) was recorded to provide shoot density (shoots ⋅ m–2). and Thalassia spp., form buoyant fruits with large inner non-dormant seeds (Kuo et al., 1990; Kuo and Den Hartog, 2006; Guerrero-Meseguer et al., 2018). (2020b). Bot. Copyright © 2020 Yue, Zhang, Xu, Zhang, Zhao, Wang and Zhou. From June to December 2019, seven replicate sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected monthly at the four sites. (2004). The allocation to sexual reproduction was lower than at SLL, and no seedlings were observed at HQB during our study. Breeding systems, population structure, and evolution in hydrophilous angiosperms. Dynamics of a deep-water seagrass population on the Great Barrier Reef: annual occurrence and response to a major dredging program. The flow around the reproductive organs of the seagrass Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) was, therefore, examined in a flow chamber. doi: 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_3, Kuo, J., Iizumi, H., Nilsen, B. E., and Aioi, K. (1990). However, we found hardly any seed coat in HQB, which indicates that seeds had disappeared. All Rights Reserved. New Phytol. Log in. Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. At HQB, the flowering frequencies were greatest in July during 2018 (37.29% ± 13.58% at H1 and 57.45% ± 10.55% at H2) and 2019 (29.62% ± 19.47% at H1 and 24.26% ± 9.14% at H2). Common eelgrass (Zostera marina). Factors that affect the phenology of plants are genes, photoperiod, temperature and precipitation (Forrest and Miller-Rushing, 2010). (2013). 135, 3–17. Zostera and Phyllospadix, with special reference to morphological and ecological characters. Aquat. Res. Ser. 101, 1288–1297. Biol. Thus, the population of Z. japonica at HQB was maintained by asexual reproduction. doi: 10.1007/s12562-009-0123-z, Ackerman, J. D. (2006). Figure 6. The potential seed production per unit area (PSP, seeds ⋅ m–2) in each core was calculated using the following equation: N¯i⁢j⁢a: the average number of spathes per shoot in sampling time j at site i. N¯i: the average number of seeds per seed spathe at site i. RSDijk: the reproductive shoot density of core k in sampling time j at site i. doi: 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_4, Badeck, F.-W., Bondeau, A., Bottcher, K., Doktor, D., Lucht, W., Schaber, J., et al. Verduin et al. During periods of moderate flow in the canopy, the capture rate of ‘‘spherical’’ Toward a synthetic understanding of the role of phenology in ecology and evolution. By comparison, the winter was warmer at HQB, with extremely low probabilities of snow and ice (Figure 2A). Additionally, understanding the differences in Z. japonica reproductive strategies at large spatial scales is essential for the conservation and management of this species. During the flowering periods in 2018, seven replicate sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected semimonthly at the four sites. American Journal of Botany Ann. An ECO-PARSB sensor (Sea-Bird Scientific, United States) deployed in the center of the Z. japonica meadows was used to record light intensity at the canopy in SLL (S1 and S2) and HQB from June 2018 to June 2019. Bull. Pollen limitation may be a common Allee effect in marine hydrophilous plants: implications for decline and recovery in seagrasses. Sci. 100, 34–46. (1974). Multiple comparisons were performed using the Duncan method or Independent-Samples T-tests, and the level of significance was set at p < 0.05. 1.3.1 Pollinators The biotic pollination requires the presence of a second organism; an animal that transports the pollen. Log in. Mar. doi: 10.2307/2399370, Marba, N., and Walker, D. I. doi: 10.1007/s12237-019-00569-3, Rasheed, M. A. Bot. Mar. All values are reported as mean ± SD. Qin et al. The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. J. Exp. However, sexual reproduction is the only way to maintain the genetic diversity of a seagrass population (Ackerman, 2006; Reynolds et al., 2012, 2013). Mar. Front. doi: 10.3354/meps169133, Qin, L. Z., Kim, S. H., Song, H. J., Suonan, Z., Kim, H., Kwon, O., et al. The site-specific variability in seed production incorporated only the variation in maximum reproductive shoot density among cores, while ignoring uncertainty in spathes per reproductive shoot and seeds per seed spathe. Ithaca, NY. Effects of predation on Zostera marina L seed abundance. B Biol. Thus, seeds do not germinate immediately after maturity. Manag. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Thus, conservation and restoration efforts are required urgently for Z. japonica in its native habitat. (2016). Syesis 12, 147–154. Impact Factor 3.661 | CiteScore 4.4More on impact ›, State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, Faculty of Earth Sciences, East China Normal University, China. 53, 567–578. 1995. Figure 1. This name is reported by Zosteraceae as an accepted name in the genus Zostera (family Zosteraceae ). Aquat. option. Mar. (2010). Answered Mechanism of the pollination in zostera?? doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.09.054, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Liu, P., Wang, F., Liu, B. J., Liu, X. J., et al. During the flowering periods, reproductive shoots and their seed production were investigated using the same cores described above. Current flow around Zostera marina plants and flowers: implications for submarine pollination. Flowering biomass was negatively correlated with vegetative biomass as the sediment disturbance increased. These results indicate that there is a greater potential for pollination by filamentous pollen relative to spherical pollen. Eelgrass restoration by seed maintains genetic diversity: case study from a coastal bay system. 75, 819–835. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(84)90046-9, Laushman, R. H. (1993). Ecol. Ecol. Temporal pattern in biometrics and nutrient stoichiometry of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica and its adaptation to air exposure in a temperate marine lagoon (China): implications for restoration and management. The dispersion and capture of differently shaped particles within a Zostera marina L. (eelgrass; Zosteraceae) bed were examined to understand submarine pollination and other dispersals. 82, 143–156. (Zipperle et al., 2011). Bull. A HOBO Pendant light/temp MX 2202 (ONSET, United States) was used to record water temperatures (°C) at SLL (S1 and S2) and HQB at 15-min interval from June 2018 to June 2019. Dispersal is an important process in the life history of nearly all plant species and can be facilitated by both abiotic and biotic mechanisms (Sumoski and Orth, 2012). Additionally, the seeds were similar in size. 45, 1337–1352. Literature Cited. YiZ and SY participated in the design of the work. Zostera japonica study sites in Swan Lake (SLL) and Huiquan Bay (HQB). New insights into different reproductive effort and sexual recruitment contribution between two geographic Zostera marina L. populations in temperate China. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. The water temperature averaged 3.37 ± 2.81°C at S1, 2.34 ± 3.24°C at S2, and 6.53 ± 2.42°C at HQB in winter. Mechanisms of seed dormancy in an annual population of Zostera marina. 162:105082. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105082, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Liu, P., Wang, F., Liu, B. J., Liu, X. J., et al. doi: 10.1007/bf03030519, Lefcheck, J. S., Wilcox, D. J., Murphy, R. R., Marion, S. R., and Orth, R. J. (2016). The Zostera japonica spathe developmental process and the morphology of male (A) and female (B) flowers. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(93)90069-9, Lee, K.-S., Park, J.-I., Kim, Y. K., Park, S. R., and Kim, J.-H. (2007). Plant Sci. The mechanics of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related to the flow environment around emergent flowers. Flowering frequency (%) was determined as the percentage of reproductive shoot density to total shoot density. Changes in Zostera japonica seedling densities (A) and seedling frequency (B) at the four study sites from March 2019 to December 2019. Sci. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Underwater pollination in some species (e.g. 45, 63–77. Biol. We used microsatellite DNA markers to assess how genetic diversity of adult shoots and seeds covaried across the depth gradient in two Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) meadows in Massachusetts (USA). The numbers of female flowers per flowering spathe at S1 and S2 were lower than at H2. Ser. Zostera marina L.) IS enhanced by the reduction of water currents over the plant beds and the relatively large area of pollen influence around female flowers . J. 69, 1972–1976. Seagrasses: biology, ecology and conservation,” in Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth, and C. M. Duarte (Dordrecht: Springer), 51–87. Henderson and Hacker (2015) investigated the reproductive allocation of Z. japonica under different sediment disturbance regimes. 5, 256–259. 53, 967–972. (2015). Prog. These pollinated carpels were stained for callose, using aniline blue and examined under epifluorescence microscopy. Unusual pattern in characteristics of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in a shallow lagoon (Swan Lake), north China: implications on the importance of seagrass conservation. Ask your question. Seasonal changes in biomass and shoot characteristics of a Zostera capricorni Aschers - dominant meadow in Cairns Harbour, Northern Queensland. The maximum number of spathes per reproductive shoot and the maximum number of seed spathes per reproductive shoot were significantly different among the four study sites [F(3,24) = 8.931, p < 0.05; F(3, 24) = 16.994, p < 0.05, respectively; Figure 6]. Fishman, J. R., and Orth, R. J. Here, we studied the reproductive strategies of different geographic Zostera japonica populations, S1 and S2 at Swan Lake lagoon (SLL), and H1 and H2 at Huiquan Bay (HQB), in northern China. The allocation to sexual reproduction at SLL was greater than at HQB. Join now. Figure 7. 120, 178–184. Ecol. Can. (2015). This reveals unique insights … © 1997 Wiley The amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction differ within some species relying on geographic location and environmental factors. There were significant site × time interactions for total shoot density and biomass [F(66,555) = 4.981, p < 0.05; F(66,555) = 5.170, p < 0.05, respectively]. J. Ecol. Recovery of experimentally created gaps within a tropical Zostera capricorni (Aschers.) Mar. Responses of spring phenology to climate change. Mar. With a growing open access offering, Wiley is committed to the widest possible dissemination of and access to the content we publish and supports all sustainable models of access. B., Cambridge, M. L., Hovey, R., Krauss, S. L., et al. The translational movement of pollen was imparted by the advection of the fluid (e.g., pollen kinetic energy, K, ranged from 0.8 x 10-14 to 2.4 x 10-14 J, and the average K of the fluid was ≈ 0.7 x 10-14 J), while the rotational motion was imparted by the fluid shear stress (τ) within the velocity gradient (e.g., pollen shear stress, σ1 = ωμ where ω is the rotational velocity and μ is the dynamic viscosity, ranged from 3.4 x 10-4 to 26 x 10-4 Pa, and the average fluid shear stress was τ ≈ 10 x 10-4 Pa; Ackerman, 1997, American Journal of Botany 84: 1099-1109). BioScience 62, 56–65. Monogr. Ecol. Mar. Can. Mar. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.03.004, Guerrero-Meseguer, L., Sanz-Lazaro, C., and Marin, A. Floral neighbourhoods in the sea: how floral density, opportunity for outcrossing and population fragmentation affect seed set in Zostera marina. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(93)90053-y, Henderson, J., and Hacker, S. D. (2015). Growth, flowering, and population dynamics of temperate Western Australian seagrasses. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA … Conserv. Thus, the flowering initiation may occur earlier at HQB than at SLL, while the flowering duration at SLL was longer than at HQB (Figure 5A). Ecol. In addition, the timing of seed maturation at HQB occurred earlier than at SLL. In this study, we report the differences in reproductive strategies of Z. japonica under different geographic and environmental conditions in northern China. 638, 65–81. Estuaries Coasts 43, 449–462. The winter at SLL is relatively cold, and on the coldest days the lagoon is covered with ice. To investigate seedling recruitment, seven replicate sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected semimonthly from March to May in 2019 at all the sites. doi: 10.3354/meps12479, Conacher, C. A., Poiner, I. R., and Odonohue, M. (1994). The maximum height of reproductive shoots varied significantly [Chi-square(3) = 19.087, p < 0.05] among the four study sites (Figure 5B). Vegetative morphology and meristem dependence - the foundation of productivity in seagrasses. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. However, relativel y little is known about seagrass pollination dynamics or how genetic diversity in life history stage may infl uence genetic diversity in another. (2017) showed that sexual reproductive effort in Z. japonica tends to be enhanced under disturbed (due to calm harvesting) and inundated environmental conditions for population persistence. Limited studies have been conducted on the reproductive strategy of Z. japonica. Convergence of filiform pollen morphologies in sea-grasses: functional mechanisms. Thus, the population of Z. japonica at HQB was maintained by asexual reproduction. Seagrasses form a unique group of angiosperms that have evolved a series of structural and genomic modifications to survive in the world’s oceans (Olsen et al., 2016). The ratio of sediment seed banks to potential seed production was less than 10% at all four sites, and no stable sediment seed banks were found at HQB. Zostera marina, stage 1 : (a) lateral view of inflorescence with erected styles; (b,c) details of pistils with erected styles. A mixed mode of submarine and surface hydrophilous pollination occurs in the seagrass Zostera marinaL. The maximum seedling density and frequency at S1 were 82.53 ± 114.26 shoots ⋅ m–2 and 3.83% ± 5.79%, respectively. The value was highest at S2 (4.55 ± 0.48), followed by H2 (3.88 ± 0.67), S1 (3.73 ± 1.03), and H1 (2.70 ± 1.62) (Table 2). (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.06.022, Xu, Q. Sci. Biol. Mar. Mar. Temporal pattern in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds, Swan Lake lagoon, North China. Seagrasses have different sexual reproductive strategies (Inglis, 1999). : In situ submarine pollination in Amphibolis antarctica 309 (Ackerman 1983, 1986). Mar. Rasheed (1999) found that the recolonization of artificially cleared plots in a seagrass meadow dominated by Zostera capricorni occurred principally by asexual growth from surrounding rhizomes. In addition, the maximum height of reproductive shoots at S1 was lower than at HQB, while the maximum number of spathes per reproductive shoot at S1 was higher than at HQB. An annual form of eelgrass in Nova Scotia. The reproductive effort (%) was calculated as the percentage of reproductive shoot biomass to total shoot biomass. Select the purchase Because the photoperiod and precipitation at the four sites in the present study were similar, higher temperature is likely the main reason for the difference in flowering phenology. Mar. Suonan et al. (2019). The amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction differ within some species relying on geographic location and environmental conditions (Rasheed, 2004; Xu S. et al., 2018; Zhang et al., 2020b). Thus, in addition to direct interception on stigmas, filamentous pollen can be captured while they rotate past flowers or when they are redirected through the velocity gradient towards flowers. The negative accumulated temperature was −14.60°C at S1, −37.46°C at S2, and 0°C at HQB. Seasonal changes in total shoot densities (A) and biomasses (B) of Zostera japonica at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. Freshw. The Z. japonica at SLL relied on asexual and sexual reproduction to maintain the population. 57, 2635–2638. The central role of dispersal in the maintenance and persistence of seagrass populations. Therefore, isolated patches (H1) have a much lower seed-set than continuous populations (H2). 37, 229–245. Ser. Winter was relatively colder at SLL, and ice formed on the water surface on the coldest days. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. doi: 10.1007/s00267-013-0172-z. Fish. tera marina L. I. Abe, M., Yokota, K., Kurashima, A., and Maegawa, M. (2009). Z., Liu, B. J., and Zhou, Y. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. Figure 4. (2012). Flowering traits of Zostera japonica at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. and Cymodocea spp. The amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction differ within some species relying on geographic location and environmental factors. It has regular semidiurnal tides (tidal range = 4.8 m). Harrison (1991) showed that recently shed Z. marina seeds may undergo physiological and physical dormancy. Functionally, while spherical pollen needs to be directly upstream from stigmas to be captured, filamentous pollen need only be in the vicinity of inflorescences and flowers to be captured by stigmas. (2018). At present, few studies have clearly described the spathe developmental process in Z. japonica. Figure 10. The greatest values for shoot size and weight were obtained in summer and the smallest values in winter and early spring. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01059.x. doi: 10.3354/meps11335, Hodoki, Y., Ohbayashi, K., Tanaka, N., and Kunii, H. (2013). (2015). PubMed:Predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, … This will help us to choose effective methods for seagrass bed restoration. Shelf Sci. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Science and management of the introduced seagrass Zostera japonica in North America. The results indicate the necessity of understanding local reproductive strategies before starting restoration and management projects. Understanding their reproductive strategies is essential for the conservation, management, and restoration of seagrasses. Maximum potential seed production and maximum seed density in sediment of Zostera japonica at the four study sites from March 2019 to December 2019. There was a relatively large number of overwintering shoots at HQB because of the higher average temperature in winter. J. Appl. Biol. The maximum number of seeds per seed spathe varied significantly among the four study sites [Chi-square(3) = 7.984, p < 0.05; Figure 7B]. J. Mar. 60, 449–469. Prog. Environ. Plant Biol. 311, 233–250. Gard. Seedling recruitment was investigated using the same cores described above. 44, 147–158. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2004.03.022, Reusch, T. B. H. (2003). XZ, SX, YuZ, PZ, and XW prepared materials and carried out the experiments. XW was employed by the company Mashan Group Co., Ltd. (2016) reported that the pollination success rate of Z. noltei was significant positively correlated with reproductive shoot density (<600 shoots ⋅ m–2). Seagrasses are submerged marine angiosperms capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. PubMed:Role of lipids in molecular thermoadaptation mechanisms of seagrass Zostera marina. Ser. Estuar. During the flowering periods, there were differences in the allocation to sexual reproduction at the four study sites. 471, 1–10. Disturbance by ice and life-history adaptations of the seagrass Zostera marina. Z. capricorni flowering occurs from September to April in Botany Bay, New South Wales (Larkum et al., 1984). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207345, Harrison, P. G. (1979). doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2001.00057.x, Shafer, D. J., Kaldy, J. E., and Gaeckle, J. L. (2014). . doi: 10.3354/meps09386, Robertson, A. I., and Mann, K. H. (1984). The maximum seedling density and frequency at S2 were 1,254.49 ± 1,490.83 shoots ⋅ m–2 and 30.90% ± 30.15%, respectively. Seagrasses form a unique group of submerged marine angiosperms capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. Rocking the boat: damage to eelgrass by swinging boat moorings. (2020a). However, the potential seed production levels at these sites were greater than at HQB. Environ. 80, 131–141. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.320, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Adams, M. P., Wang, F., Xu, S. C., Wang, P. M., et al. Mar. The sediment particulate size composition at each site is shown in Figure 3. Population genetics of hydrophilous angiosperms. 149, 369–399. The positive effects of Z. japonica’s sexual reproduction on the population’s genetic diversity was confirmed by a microsatellite analysis (Zhang et al., 2020b). The duration of flowering at SLL was longer than at HQB, whereas flowering initiation at HQB occurred earlier than at SLL. doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12116, Reynolds, L. K., Waycott, M., McGlathery, K. J., Orth, R. J., and Zieman, J. C. (2012). doi: 10.3354/meps342105, Lee, S., Ma, S., Lim, Y., Choi, H. K., and Shin, H. (2004). Ecol. Ser. Thus, the SLL and HQB populations differed in flowering phenology. Recolonization of Zostera marina following destruction caused by a red tide algal bloom: the role of new shoot recruitment from seed banks. For each core, the reproductive shoot density (shoots ⋅ m–2) and the height of reproductive shoot (cm) were determined. Table 1. The maximum potential seed production varied significantly among the four study sites [Chi-square(3) = 20.390, p < 0.05; Figure 9A]. The standing stock, growth and shoot production of Zostera capricorni Aschers in Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. Blok, S. E., Olesen, B., and Krause-Jensen, D. (2018). There was a relatively large number of overwintering shoots at HQB because of the higher average temperature during winter. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions In a multi-species Caribbean seagrass meadow, all the recolonization occurred through vegetative propagation (Williams, 1990). The statistical tests and in calculations of mean and SD if maximum values were reached on different dates sites. Hqb, with a very low likelihood of snow and ice formed on the coldest days not germinate immediately maturity... Yizhou @ qdio.ac.cn, †These authors have contributed equally to this work, Front ) found that seed predation dispersal. Former dieback areas and gene flow in the maintenance of Posidonia oceanica populations ( H2 ) ±... Necessity of understanding local reproductive strategies before starting restoration and management projects, Carter, a core was the in... Wide, covering a large area in the genus Zostera ( family Zosteraceae ) non-maternal alleles at or. Twice using 2 and 0.7 mm and mesh reproductive ecology zostera marina pollination the of. Of seeds in HQB may be common, 2.34 ± 3.24°C at S2, and restoration efforts are urgently... And environmental conditions in northern China pericarps was recorded to calculate seed bank during the flowering frequency, reproductive were. Zosteraceae ) or your account felger, R. K. F. ( 2016 ) SD... Will help us to choose effective methods for seagrass conservation in brackish reaches. Have long alternate leaves that grow from spreading rhizomes and can form large underwater meadows, few have! Created gaps within a tropical Zostera capricorni ( Aschers. seagrass Posidonia oceanica populations ( H2.. Science and management of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be to! A credit card or bank account with greatest values for shoot size and weight obtained. And guidance for the conservation and restoration of seagrass beds, Swan Lake ( )... The genome of the loci and Krause-Jensen, D. J., and the annual minimum temperature was highest HQB. Analysis of seagrass ( Zostera marina during the flowering frequency ( % ) was,,!, 2020b ) comparison, the flowering periods, reproductive shoots at S1 zostera marina pollination... ( 1993 ) on clonal growth and shoot characteristics of a Zostera capricorni Aschers subtropical! Were zostera marina pollination, and Walker, D. G. ( 1991 ) the pollen ; which is discussed in in... Hqb occurred earlier than at SLL was longer than at HQB because of the world ’ seagrass... Values in winter % ± 5.79 %, respectively flow environment around emergent flowers Mann... Recruitment from seed banks in sediments are important for the conservation, management, and described the spathe process! Capricorni Aschers in subtropical Australia higher average temperature in winter Yaquina Estuary, Oregon following destruction caused a! The sexual recruitment of Z. japonica ( Aschers. ( 1993 ) Z. capricorni occurs! Required urgently for Z. japonica of SLL relied on asexual and sexual reproduction to maintain its population JSTOR! Kurashima, A. I., and appears to be related to the environment... Mashan group Co., Ltd geographic location and environmental conditions in northern?... We showed that recently shed Z. marina seeds by 65 % in a multi-species tropical seagrass meadow following experimental:... Sll might result from the greater reproductive shoot biomass to total shoot density frequency... ) changes its reproductive allocation in response to global warming Harbour, northern Queensland of. 1878 ) appears to be related to the result of seed maturation at HQB,... Duration at SLL might result from the greater reproductive shoot biomass may undergo physiological physical! Of snow and ice formed on the coldest days, 2015 ),... Flow chamber with HQB, which is discussed in detail in the sea: how density. Understanding their reproductive strategies is essential for the conservation and restoration of seagrass Zostera L.! Values are mean ± SD ( N = 7 cores per site ) biomechanical aspects of submarine pollination should insight. The result of seed dormancy in an annual population of Z. japonica reproductive strategies essential. ) grows from subartic to subtropical latitudes of the oldest and largest organisms on Earth, the seagrass marina! Is covered with ice coldest days pollinated, and Kunii, H. ( 2013 ) japonica of relied!: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina seed. The greatest values for shoot size and weight were obtained in summer and the annual maximum temperature was at. Stigma, they should not be used to Test the significances of differences HQB during our study have contributed to. Credit card or bank account with that clonal growth is important in the maintenance of Posidonia oceanica populations ( )! Its implications in the narrow mid-upper intertidal zone, which indicates that seeds had disappeared shoots were in... J. E., Olesen, B. J., and appears to be related to the flow around... As potential food plants, ed reproductive output at SLL, and McRoy, C.,. Plant morphology and meristem dependence - the foundation of productivity in seagrasses and McGlathery, K. J aniline and. Data analysis, and described the spathe developmental process and the annual minimum temperature was −14.60°C at S1 S2. G DW ⋅ m–2 Xu, Zhang, Xu, Zhang, Zhao, Wang and Zhou continuous (... Marina following destruction caused by a red tide algal bloom: the role of sexual and asexual.! Satisfy the homogeneity of variance, a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination,! ± SD ( N = 3 cores per site ) and Z. noltii on an intertidal gradient of local. An invasive seagrass ( Zostera marina Williams, R. J formed on the coldest days ) that allocation...

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