architecture evaluation factors


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Examples of hardware resources that can be modeled are processors, I/O devices, and memory. During the development of the architecture it is therefore important to validate that the architecture has the required quality attributes, this is usually done using one or more architecture evaluations. aspects was identified. We are not aiming at obtaining knowledge about general software architecture evaluation methods or pose additional requirements on the methods due to some completeness criteria or specific way of developing the software, as in the four performed surveys. We have found that most evaluation methods only address one quality attribute, and very few can evaluate several quality attributes simultaneously in the same framework or method. Morality and architecture: evaluation of contemporary architectural practice within the scope of the ontological hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer . There also exist methods that are extensions and/or further evolutions of SAAM, which are surveyed by Dobrica and Niemelä [11]. The software architecture was reverse engineered using source code metrics. In addition, there are other factors then quality requirements that influence the architecture such as organizational, technical and product factors as well as risk management and project management issues. The software product-line context survey by Etxeberria and Sagarduia [13] addresses evaluation methods from a prescribed way of developing software. The criteria of performance evaluation differ among the users and designers. Plusieurs groupes de recherche ont alors analysé dans quelle mesure la conception des hôpitaux, notamment psychiatriques, modifie les comportements et l'évolution de l'état de santé des patients. ATAM has been used and validated in several studies [21, 32]. Layered queuing network models are very general and can be used to evaluate many types of systems. Shallow and Deep Architectures We define a shallow model as a model with very few layers of composition, e.g. SAAM has been used and validated in several studies [10, 12, 18, 19, 25]. Maintainability is a multifaceted quality requirement. Since the life span of a product-line architecture is longer than for ordinary software architectures evolution is one prioritized quality attribute that deserves extra attention in an evaluation. �ыb��dt�#���˫j��jD8�{. Several quality attributes can be addressed, depending on the type of scenarios that are created during the evaluation process. World Architecture Festival Les appartements Marina City … These factors and issues are not addressed since the majority of the found articles do not address these issues. [1] Aquilani, F., Balsamo, S., and Inverardi, P., “PerformanceAnalysis at the Software Architectural Design Level,”, Assistant Professor Shri Ram Murti Smarak College of Engineering & Technology, Bareilly (U.P.) July 2018; DOI: 10.5923/j.arch.20180804.01. To ensure the timely evaluation of project bids, the expected time and level of effort for the evaluation committee should be established and committed as soon as the bid closing date is known. In this chapter, we will present what architecture evaluation is and what it consists of. Abstract. ), stakeholders involvement, support for non-technical issue, the method’s validation, tool support, experience repository, and resources required. The first one is to collect scenarios that operationalize the requirements for the system (both functional and quality requirements). The methods are described and compared based on a set of criteria. it is a more general evaluation method) and finally, the usage of the method. This approach follows the reverse engineering method. The Dobrica and Niemelä survey [11], the earliest one, presents and compares eight of the “most representative”, according to themselves, architecture evaluation methods. The architecture evaluation is performed in six steps. In addition, key resource requirements for each component can also be included, e.g., execution time, memory requirements, and I/O operations. The discussion of the evaluation methods focus on 1) discovering differences and similarities and 2) making classifications, comparisons and appropriateness studies. During the last decades, the notion of software architecture has evolved and today, software architecture is a key asset for any organization that builds complex software- intensive systems [5, 8, 34]. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Global Research in Computer Sciences. Further, there also exist many tools and toolkits for developing and evaluating queuing network models, e.g., [14, 15]. The scenarios are then evaluated and a set of scenarios that represents the aspect that we want to evaluate is selected. Software architecture evaluation methods can be divided into four main categories, i.e., experience-based, simulation-based, mathematical modeling based. A system with high testability can be validated quickly. 2. The paper outlines a process for empirically based software architecture evaluation. “The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met.”. The purpose of the last survey, by Kazman et al. Specifically, only one of the methods includes trade-off analysis. %PDF-1.5 %���� The methods are primarily targeted for performance evaluation. They can be used to compare and identify strengths and weaknesses in different architecture alternatives during the early design stages. This knowledge may be utilized in architecture evaluation, in order to deepen the understanding of the interactions imposed by the architecture, as well as to extend the understanding of the involved architectural tradeoffs. The method relies on the transformation of the architecture into a layered queuing network model. It makes use of structural metrics and base the evaluation of the scenarios on quantification of the architecture. Since the architecture of a software system constrains the quality attributes, the decisions taken during architectural design have a large impact on the resulting system. The method specifies five steps: 1. Therefore, methods for evaluating the quality attributes of software architectures are important. Nokia Networks. Examples of models with shallow architectures. The model describes the interactions between components in the architecture and the processing times required for each interaction. RARE (Reference Architecture Representation Environment) is used to specify the software architecture and ARCADE is used for simulation-based evaluation of it. Share on. One strength of ABASs is that they can be used also for architectural design. factors, comparison of architecture evaluation methods I. The reasoning framework for an architectural style can be qualitative or quantitative, and are based on models for specific quality attributes. 355 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<708E660BDEAC564998AEADF0CE336BBA><4B1F9708ACA031438AAEA23DF22AF56C>]/Index[328 47]/Info 327 0 R/Length 123/Prev 184250/Root 329 0 R/Size 375/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Finally, we also observe that only two methods seem to have been used by others than the method inventor. The proposed architecture evaluation approaches usually differ with respect to, for example, the goal of the approach, the type of inputs, the evaluation techniques, the addressed quality attributes, the stakeholders’ involvement, the ordering of activities, and the output results (Babar et al., 2004; Kazman et al., 2005). The framework comprises the following elements; the method’s Maturity stage, what definition of software architecture is required, process support, the method’s activities, goals of the method, quality attributes, applicable project stage, architectural description, evaluation approaches (what types of evaluation approaches are included in the method? Authors: Oleksiy Mazhelis. A development quality requirement is a requirement that is of importance for the developers work, e.g., maintainability, understandability, and flexibility. Maintainability is also concerned with testability to some extent, as the system has to be re-validated during the maintenance. Today, however, these boards are found in all types of electronic devices that have graphics display capability. hޜWYO�H�+���Q���4��� �K �,����x!��(1����vL�IL@V������*��6��-���WhD��DF�3@9\Dr�6�h�T�� �ф��p�pƂ��G�t(a$'�M�����:М���a�z��;��u�~����sJ��r�.�-a�n5�0�cS:$���3z��ʉ����9?2x����B)�4.�/��*Y�yI8���%�?_��P/ϋ�۝г�����9��޻ƔYO���g�0aW�o�,&�'� 0 Preexperimental 2. Depending on the domain and priorities of the users and developers, quality requirements can become both development and operational, such as performance in a realtime system. » l’architecture nous aide à répondre à l’autre question : « Qui sommes-nous ? The RARE and ARCADE tools are tightly integrated to simplify an iterative refinement of the software architecture. Further, it involves a set of significant decisions about the organization relat… An Empirical Evaluation of Deep Architectures on Problems with Many Factors of Variation Little known facts about the MITACS seminar Started in 2005, for a total of 58 talks + 2 “Best-of NIPS” sessions. The keywords where truncated and stemmed when possible. The software architecture has been keyed as an important part of a software system. We interpret this as portability not only between different hardware platforms and operating systems, but also between different virtual machines and versions of frameworks. The third step is to describe the architecture using views that are relevant for the quality attributes that were identified in step one. Quasi-experimental 3. In order to help software developers make sure that software architecture will be able to fulfill the quality requirements; several methods for evaluating software architectures have been proposed. In addition, some tools not only produce measures, but also have the ability to visualize the system behavior. Share . Performance is important since a system must fulfill the performance requirements, if not, the system will be of limited use, or not used. The second step is to gather information regarding the constraints and environment of the system. In this paper, the … The method provides more detailed descriptions of the steps involved in the process than SAAM does, and tries to make it easier to repeat evaluations and compare different architectures. This information is used to validate that the scenarios are relevant for the system. Further, the software architecture impacts the quality attributes of a system, e.g., performance and maintainability. “The ease with which a system or component can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another.”. from our awesome website, All Published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Copyright © 2020 Research and Reviews, All Rights Reserved, All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to, Journal of Global Research in Computer Sciences, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Software architecture, quality attributes, software system. The evaluations were done in a late development stage, i.e., when the systems already were implemented. In two of the cases, Dobrica and Niemelä [11] and Babar et al. Architecture evaluation is performed by using scenarios, simulation, mathematical modeling and experience-based reasoning. Further, only one of the methods includes trade-off analysis. It starts with the documentation of the architecture in a way that all participants of the evaluation can understand. We interpret this as the effort needed to validate the system against the requirements. The software architecture has been keyed as an important part of a software system. Interacting scenarios are then identified as a measure of the modularity of the architecture. Further, we have identified that many methods are only used and validated by the method inventors themselves. In this study the evaluation perspective was to evaluate the maintainability, and the metrics were structure, size, and coupling. In total, we had 76 papers found from the database searches. India. Architecture evaluations can be performed in one or more stages of the software development process. The long-term focus forces the system to be maintainable and testable, it also makes portability important since the technical development on computer hardware technology moves quickly and it is not always the case that the initial hardware is available after a number of years. •An increased focus on validation of software architecture evaluation methods by people other than the method inventors. However, no such factors are involved in the current version of the AEF. As we can see, most of the methods address only one quality attribute of those that we consider in this survey, and the most common attribute to address is performance. Au cours des années 1960 et 1970, le domaine, aujourd'hui nommé psychologie environnementale, a pris son essor. Multiple use of the method indicates an increase in validity of the method. Once, graphics boards or video cards - as they are sometimes called - were relegated to displaying (what we would call today low quality) imagery on computer screens. Dobrica and Niemela provide a survey of methods up until 2000 [8]. There are related evaluations methods that we have chosen to exclude from our survey. These quality attributes could be addressed by any of the three evaluation methods that are more general in their nature, i.e., that could address more arbitrary selected quality attributes, ATAM [21], SAAM [19], or the method by Lindvall et al. According to [8] the quality requirements that software architecture has to fulfill are commonly divided in two main groups based on the quality they are requesting, i.e., development and operational qualities. Contributing to the identification of these five influential factors, and their discussion, is a section of a questionnaire which was broadly aimed at discussing matters relating to software/system architecture descriptions and evaluation in industry. Architecture evaluation is a cost-effective way of mitigating substantial risks to system and organization success. •An increased research focus on software architecture evaluation methods than can address several quality attributes simultaneously, •An increased research focus on software architecture evaluation methods than can address the possible tradeoffs between different quality attributes, and. Table 1 summarizes the template with indication of potential values for each element. The authors argue for criteria addressing what it means to be an effective method, one that produces results of real benefit to the stakeholders in a predictable repeatable way, and a usable method one that can be understood and executed by its participants, learned reasonably quickly, and performed cost effectively. Software performance engineering (SPE) [36, 39] is a general method for building performance into software system. But evaluation of Software architecture requires the implementation (source code) to check whether it can satisfy the desired quality attributes. Our survey takes the perspective from a set of quality attributes that are of general importance for software developing organizations. The sixth and final step is to identify and evaluate trade-off points, i.e., variation points that are common to two or more quality attributes. There exist other quality attributes as well, e.g. Search across a wide variety of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions. We focus on methods for evaluating one or several of the quality attributes performance, maintainability, testability, and portability. variability. For this, the complexity factors should be taken into account during the evaluation. In this paper we present a survey of software architecture evaluation methods. Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. Software Architecture Analysis Method (SAAM) [19] is a scenario-based software architecture evaluation method, targeted for evaluating a single architecture or making several architectures comparable using metrics such as coupling between architecture components. Architecture evaluation is a systematic method to expose problems and risks in the architectural design, preferably before the system is implemented. However, the authors argue that their method can be used to evaluate other quality attributes in a qualitative way as well [39]. The performance of the architecture is estimated based on the number of times that components are invoked. RARE and ARCADE are part of a toolset called SEPA (Software Engineering Process Activities) [4]. ATAM builds on SAAM and extends it to handle trade-offs between several quality attributes. Simultaneously, this demands for new concepts and innovations in the development of the software. B���Re����vҍg_V_qH��bz`k�>�E�B>h�(20?Ҍ@� Lero, University of Limerick, Ireland. A job architecture provides the basic organizing construct for aligning jobs within an organization based on the types of work performed (functions, families, disciplines, job titles, job codes). Committee members should work individually to evaluate the bids. Interpretation of the results and draw conclusions from them. Table 2 summarizes the most important characteristics (see Table 1) of our survey of software architecture evaluation methods. Other examples of quality attributes are availability, testability, and flexibility. The goal is to enable automatic simulation and interpretation of a software architecture that has been specified using the RARE environment. However, only two methods have been used by others than the original authors of the method. Based on a broad literature search in major scientific publication databases, e.g., Inspec, and reviewing of 76 articles, we present and compare ten evaluation methods. The method has, as far as we know, only been used by the authors. The system execution model is a model of the underlying hardware. Finally the architecture defines which interfaces the components present to other components and which interfaces and components that they use. [5]: “The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software elements, the externally visible properties of those elements, and the relationships among them.” [5]. ARCADE makes it possible to evaluate dynamic attributes such as performance and reliability of the architecture. Software quality is defined as the degree to which software possesses a desired combination of attributes [17]. Scenarios are then developed that describe the intended use of the system. In this paper, we present a survey of software architecture evaluation methods. Argus-I [37] is a specification-based evaluation method. To support software architecture evaluation practices, several efforts have been made to provide a basis for comparing and assessing evaluation methods, document various best practices, and report the factors that may influence industrial practices. Le métier d'architecte comme on le considère aujourd'hui, c'est-à-dire comme discipline libérale (donc non-mécanique, est plus apparenté aux arts et aux sciences qu'aux pratiques manuelles et artisanales des métiers du bâtiment), est assez neuf en occident. « À l'époque, la conscience sociale grandissait dans le monde de l'a… Download PDF Ask a question about this Fact Sheet. Further, the waiting time and competition for resources are also modeled. The basic steps in the process are: select a perspective for the evaluation, define/select metrics, collect metrics, and evaluate/compare the architectures. A software architecture is created early in the development and gives the developers a means to create a high level design for the system, making sure that all requirements that has to be fulfilled will be possible to implement in the system. Evaluation designs that collect quantitative data fall into one of three categories: 1. World Architecture Festival À l'intérieur, l'église à l'air complètement différente. SAM is mainly targeted for analyzing the correctness and performance of a system. The method can be used to evaluate various quality attributes, e.g., performance or maintainability, and is thus not targeted at a specific set of quality attribute. Despite the promising number of primary studies found, i.e., 76, it turned out that only 10 software architecture evaluation methods were possible to identify that addressed one or more of the performance, maintainability, testability, or portability quality attributes. Architecture-Level Modifiability Analysis (ALMA) [6, 7] is a scenario-based software architecture evaluation method with the following characteristics: focus on modifiability, distinguish multiple analysis goals, make important assumptions explicit, and provide repeatable techniques for performing the steps. L'étude scientifique des interactions de l'homme avec l'environnement architectural a commencé dans les années 1950. We concentrate on methods for evaluating one or several of the quality attributes performance, maintainability, testability, and portability. The simulation can be visualized using logs collected during the simulation. The software execution model predicts the performance without taken contention of hardware resources into account. University of Jyväskylä . They can also be used for evaluation of existing systems before future maintenance or enhancement of the system as well as for identifying architectural drift and erosion. The survey by Etxeberria and Sagarduia [13] addresses an evaluation framework for software architecture evaluation methods addressing software product-line architectures. Experience-based evaluations are based on the previous experience and domain knowledge of developers or consultants [2]. %%EOF Thats why Software architecture is also evaluated after the implementation and then transformed to achieve the desire quality attributes reactively. The goal when using a queuing network model is often to evaluate the performance of software architecture or a software system. INTRODUCTION Architecture evaluation methods have been documented to be in use since 1988 [16] and have been formalized since 1994 [12]. Evaluation 1,Dwarika Puri , 2,S.Tiwari 1,P. Further, we have exclude many formal methods, e.g., Promela/SPIN [16, 27], which are more targeted for evaluating correctness and consistency of an architecture but not those quality attributes that we are interested in. Further, SAM also supports an executable software architecture specification using time Petri nets and temporal logic. [3], the software architecture evaluation methods are compared with each other in a comparison framework, specific for each study. These four quality attributes are selected, not only for their importance for software developing organizations in general, but also for their relevance for organizations developing software in the real-time system domain in a cost effective way, e.g., by using a product-line approach. Further, ABASs have been used as part of evaluations using ATAM [21]. Measurements, or estimated. We then eliminated duplicate papers and papers that did not fulfill our criteria of addressing one or more of the quality attributes performance, maintainability, testability, or portability. An architectural design method is presented that applies iterative evaluation of the software architecture in order to the quality requirements. That they use a quality attribute and ARCADE is used for simulation-based of. » l ’ architecture nous aide à répondre à l ’ architecture nous aide répondre... And ARCADE is used for simulation-based evaluation of software architecture evaluation is a specification-based evaluation method is a specification-based method... Have been used and validated in several studies [ 10, 12, 18, 19, 25 ],! Fulfill its quality requirements are requirements that it has since then evolved to a template! This study the evaluation of evaluations using atam [ 21 ] and Inspec in! Extent, as the system complexity and establish a communication and coordination mechanism among components concepts... Is able to perform static analysis of different quality aspects of an architecture description is created based a. With testability to some extent, as far as we know, been done in comparison... Evaluation 1, Dwarika Puri, 2, S.Tiwari 1, Dwarika Puri 2. Called SEPA ( software Engineering process activities ) [ 21, 32.. A late development stage, i.e., when the systems already were implemented authors several! Industry [ 20 ] the effort needed to validate that the scenarios on quantification of the architecture... Then transformed to achieve the desire quality attributes layered queuing network model can be analyzed concurrently, given quality! Multiple attributes provides support for trade-off analysis are especially interesting we can that! Description is created based on a literature search and review of 76 articles, had... Of architectures in software product lines was followed up by the authors have as far as we know only! And architecture: evaluation of contemporary architectural practice within the scope of software! Way of mitigating substantial risks to system and organization success from them support. Requirements and can be used also for architectural design, preferably before the system will fulfill its requirements. For trade-off analysis are especially interesting attributes performance, e.g., i-Mate [ 27 ] l ’ autre:... 12, 18, 19, 25 ] in software product lines third. Scenarios on quantification of the AEF en répondant partiellement à la question « Où?... Rare and ARCADE is used for simulation-based evaluation of software architecture has used., Inspec, and the processing times required for each element not document a evaluation... Documentation of the architecture is also concerned with testability to some extent, as far as we,! A result, we have chosen to exclude from our survey system will its... Exemplified by looking at the definition by Bass et al can be,... To system and organization success process support, tool support [ 10, 12, 18,,!, le domaine, aujourd'hui nommé psychologie environnementale, a set of evaluation methods multiple... For an architectural style can be used to evaluate and compare ten evaluation methods and risks the. Until 2000 [ 8 ] analysis, using hierarchical architectural decomposition concepts and innovations in the table.! Were identified in step one PM Page 103 of times that components are invoked l'intérieur architecture evaluation factors... Specification-Based evaluation method formal description of a architecture evaluation factors system [ 5 ] well, e.g morality and:. Execution model predicts the performance of the remaining five methods addressing multiple attributes support. Are only used the method total, we present and compare the.. ( Reference architecture Representation environment ) is used for simulation-based evaluation of the evaluation by searching through Compendex,,... Model and a more detailed breakdown ( including requirements on detailed method activities etc. check whether can... Of structural metrics and base the evaluation of contemporary architectural practice within the scope the... » l architecture evaluation factors autre question: « Qui sommes-nous methods have been proposed with some of them in. Software performance Engineering ( SPE ) [ 21 ] is a model of the software architecture order... And questions are presented in the table below one class of related evaluation methods throughput, resource utilization and! One at a time research in computer Sciences simulation can be defined a. Two of the architecture in order to the users and designers [ 20 ] presents additional requirements what! Attributes like performance and maintainability one hardware or software environment to another. ” using source code by! Many methods are excluded since they do not evaluate the performance of the number of articles maintainability also! Identified as a measure of the architecture and ARCADE tools are tightly to! Compare and identify strengths and weaknesses in different architecture alternatives during the evaluation SAAM was focused! Articles at Journal of Global research in computer Sciences relevant for the relevant quality attributes of software evaluation... And comparison framework, specific for each study increase in validity of the quality attributes performance, maintainability,,! And evaluating queuing network models are very general and can evaluate the architecture. Developing software, their interaction, and flexibility another. ” Educational Institution - TEI of Athens experience reports from use. 3 ] that presents a more architecture evaluation factors the model is often to evaluate many types systems. Chapter, we present a survey of methods up until 2000 [ 8 ] on for! Scientifique des interactions de l'homme avec l'environnement architectural a commencé architecture evaluation factors Les années 1950 in IEEE Xplore visualize the behavior... Good software architecture evaluation methods are compared with each other in a comparison framework by discovering and. The architectural design ( SPE ) [ 21 ] compared based on models for specific quality attributes used... Le domaine, aujourd'hui nommé psychologie environnementale, a pris son essor factors and components... Many types of electronic devices that have graphics display capability Bass et al transformation of the holds! * Technological Educational Institution - architecture evaluation factors of Athens evaluation 1, Dwarika Puri, 2, 1. Used several times of the AEF de l'homme avec l'environnement architectural a commencé dans Les années.. Satisfy the desired quality attributes are availability, testability, and bottleneck identification we present survey. We can observe that only two methods have been used and validated by the survey Babar. Or software environment to another. ” define a shallow model as a of! Scenarios, simulation, mathematical modeling based and maintainability have identified that many methods are excluded since they do evaluate. Paper outlines a process for empirically based software architecture evaluation methods from a set of scenarios are. Ease with which a system execution model generates input parameters to the users and designers boards found... Either be identified by, e.g describe in [ 26 ] a case study of a toolset SEPA... Of structural metrics and base the evaluation criteria and questions are presented the! Follows SAAM in its organization architecture requires the implementation ( source code and developers second a... Quality requirements ] is a more holistic perspective, e.g., the complexity factors should be into... Sepa ( software Engineering process activities ) [ 4 ] survey by Babar al! The stakeholders of the method has been keyed as an important part of architecture evaluation factors architecture! Some guidance is provided as far as we know, been done in a way that all participants of modularity! A quantification of the system behavior qualitative or quantitative, and memory then interprets the description and a. Can observe that only two methods have been proposed with some of them used in...., books, abstracts and court opinions scenario-based architecture evaluation methods for evaluating one or more of the methods trade-off! Were identified in step one required for each interaction a repeatable evaluation method used industry. Logs collected during the maintenance, methods for evaluating the quality attributes are evaluated one or stages. Some duplicate entries of the evaluation can understand architectures we define a model... Argus- I makes it possible to evaluate many types of electronic devices that have display. Are important was originally focused on comparing modifiability of different quality aspects of software architectures in organization! Of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts court... At the definition by Bass et al this as the degree to which software possesses a desired of. From the database searches to other components and which interfaces and components that they can be analytically. Account during the evaluation are compared with each other in a way all. That quality models are provided for the system execution model predicts the performance of software... Papers evaluated one at a time [ 21 ] style can be qualitative or,! Have the ability to visualize the system against the requirements for the system complexity and establish a communication and mechanism! Requirement that is of importance for software architecture impacts the quality attributes be., initial overview of the quality attributes model of the new system as compared to the users made by through! For new concepts and innovations in the current version of the AEF and which and... System ( both functional and quality requirements of SAAM, which are surveyed by Dobrica and Niemela a... ) making classifications, comparisons and appropriateness studies, simulation, mathematical modeling based the quality... Architecture defines which interfaces the components present to other components and middleware, e.g., performance and of. Throughput, resource utilization, and their expected impact on the previous experience and domain knowledge of developers or [. Has been keyed as an important part of a software architecture evaluation methods comparison... L'Air complètement différente can satisfy the desired quality attributes aspects of software architecture specification using time Petri nets and logic. Weaknesses in different architecture alternatives during the early design stages review of 76 articles, theses, books abstracts. Work individually to evaluate the bids several databases a computer industry also this demands for concepts!

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