rainfall in chad


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The capital city, Ndjamena, is located close to Lake Chad in the western border of the country, while Abeche, Ati, and Mongo are at the center of Chad while Lere, Sarh, and Moundou are located in the south. Weather in N'Djamena, Chad. The fliers which are outsides these limits are indicate by cross. The WAM generally cannot penetrate this far north resulting in low average rainfall (Diallo et al., 2014; Maharana et al., 2018). The temporal variability is lowest for the recovery period and highest for the wet period. We acknowledge CRU and NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, for providing the precipitation and temperature data, from their website (https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/). Decreasing trends of 0.66 mm per decade during July is observed over Moundou, while 0.05 and 0.96 mm per decade during August over Faya and Sarh, respectively. There are 3 climate zones: Rainfall in the north less than 50 mm per year, in the middle 300-600 mm, in the south over 900 mm/year. Ndjamena experiences mean rainfall of 38 cm/year during the wet period with very high temporal variability. The Lake Chad Basin is one of Africa’s largest closed sedimentary groundwater basins and encompasses three climate zones: the Saharan desert climate in the north, the Sahel in central Chad with its wet and dry seasons, and the Sudan zone in the south with a hot, wet-dry tropical climate. The monthly temperature and precipitation data sets at 0.5° × 0.5° horizontal resolution from University of Delaware (hereafter, UDEL; Willmott et al., 2001) and Climate Research Unit (hereafter, CRU; Harris et al., 2014) have been used for the analysis. In Chad, it is usual to have about 4.5 degrees more at 27.1 °C for this three-month period. The Koppen climate classification shows that the vastness of Africa gives rise to eight different climatic zones (Koppen, 2011). Both river systems rise in the highlands of Central African Republic and Cameroon, regions that receive more than 1,250 millimeters of rainfall annually. Chad receives most of its rain between June and September, and rainfall totals of more than 500 mm during this season typically provide enough water for … The deceasing trend is in the southern cities of Chad, which gets maximum rainfall due to WAM. Most of the excess rainfall years (rainfall greater than 1 standard deviation) are observed during 1950–1980. It is interesting to note that the temperature overall the cities prior to 1985 were much colder. This support the statement above that positive JJA rainfall trends dominates it. It's rainy season from June till September, though most of the precipitation falls in the southern part of the country. The middle line of the plots represents the median of the respective fields, while the top and bottom of the rectangle box represent the 25th (1st quartile) and 75th (2nd quartile) percentiles, respectively. The peak rainfall is at Moundou (9.09 cm per month) with a standard deviation (1.32 mm/day, Table 1). and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. List of countries - Global Climate data - Climate information and average monthly temperature, humidity, rainfall, snowfall, daylight, sunshine, UV index, and sea temperature for all countries in the world. With the satellite images of Chad , you can see where the sun shines and where it is cloudy. The recent increase in the rainfall over Ndjamena (which is close to Chad Lake) is interesting and encouraging for the people Chad, as this lake is the major supply of fresh water around the capital. The probability distribution of average rainfall during monsoon (June, July, and August, JJA hereafter) is analyzed for the wet period (1950–1965), dry period (1966–1990), and recovery period (1991–2014) to study the behavior of rainfall along the different cities of Chad. Rainfall is highest over Moundou (9.09 cm per month), Sarh (8.37 cm per month), and Lere (6.96 cm per month), while least over Faya (0.30 cm per month; Table 1). The mean JJA rainfall is used for the plotting of PDF. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical Direct access to our calendar releases and historical data. K. V. R. acknowledges the funding support from the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the University Utara Malaysia. More such studies need to be carried out with different observed, reanalysis data sets and models for better understanding of the processes regulating this variability. Faya, the most northern city in this study, is located next to the Sahara desert. The declining rainfall is also associated with higher temporal variability during the dry and recovery period. We acknowledge Richard Pope, Ailish Graham, and Amy Peace for their help in correcting english language in the manuscript. However, the standardized anomaly is higher than the rainfall, which may be attributed to the occasional showers in these regions. It's always hot in Chad, but the best time to go is from November till February. The Z value from the MK test determines the nature of the trend; that is, the positive (negative) value corresponds to increasing (decreasing) trend and the rate of the trend is determined by Sen's slope method. It is very important to remember that the whole period of study is divided into wet, dry, and recovery periods based on the analysis of area‐averaged rainfall over Chad, as discussed in earlier study (Maharana et al., 2018). This method is robust to the effect of the outliers in the data and avoids a distribution for the residual. Sun & Moon Today ; Sunrise & Sunset ; Moonrise & Moonset ; Moon Phases ; Eclipses ; Night Sky ; Weather Today Weather Hourly 14 Day Forecast Yesterday/Past Weather Climate (Averages) Now. The large‐scale variability in the moisture flux and transport and the associated rainfall in different periods is attributed to the city scale rainfall variability. In addition, most of the stations during the wet period show negative rainfall trend during MAM and SON. This monthly data series is used to prepare the mean annual cycle or the temporal variation of rainfall over different cities. in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), Journal of Geophysical Research All data used in this study are freely available and can be requested from the authors or obtained directly from the source: UDEL data (https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.UDel_AirT_Precip.html) and CRU data (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/data). There are different methods of irrigation which will be explained in Chapter V, and each method has a specific influence on the effective rainfall. K. C. P. and P. M. conceptualized the idea of the work. • Rains are likely to be less uniformly distributed in the future, as dry spells in the rainy season are projected to substantially increase. Section 3 describes the results and discussion while the summary and concluding remarks are provided in section 4. Objects, Solid Surface [47] Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval. The cities in the north (Faya, Abeche, and Ati) receive far less rainfall than those located in southern Chad. A.‐L., K. V. R., M. S., and R. D. provided their inputs while interpreting the results and shaping the manuscript. Highs range from 103.8°F (39.9°C) and 96.1°F (35.6°C) with warmer temperatures in the later months. Similar analysis for temperature shows that the temporal variability of temperature is less (4–5 °C) among the stations or within the stations for different periods as compared to rainfall. This behavior of rainfall over these locations is in agreement with the overall monsoon behavior over Chad (Maharana et al., 2018). Small Bodies, Solar Systems The impact of the degrading environment on migration is stark with a new phenomenon of moving not only for greener pastures but also for life safety, experts say. The north has very little rain all year. Box and whisker plots of annual precipitation over the cities for the wet period, dry period and recovery period. Ndjamena receives the highest mean rainfall (4.47 cm per month) with the strongest rainfall variability among all locations (1.87 cm per month). K. C. P. acknowledges the support from the NERC (UK Natural Environment Research Council) AMAZONICA and Amazon Hydrological Cycle grants (NE/F005806/1 and NE/K01353X/1). Chad has a hot and tropical climate, though temperatures do vary depending on area. Since the rainfall for Faya station is very less, hence the bin size selected for this location is 2. The present study is still a preliminary climate analysis over different locations/cities of Chad. The best time to visit Chad is in january and february and july until december, when you will have a hot or very hot temperature and none till mediocre rainfall.The highest average temperature in Chad is 43°C in april and the lowest is 33°C in august.. Temperatures in the tropical south often range from 68°F to 77°F, but this may get all the way up to 104°F prior to rainfall. Figure 3a highlights significant rainfall over all the locations. Composition and Structure, Atmospheric The lower caps indicate the first quantile (Q1, 25%), the upper caps indicate the third quantile (Q3, 75%), the upper whiskers are placed at Q3 + 1.5 * IQR, and the lower whiskers are placed at Q1 − 1.5 * IQR, where IQR is the interquartile range. Characteristics of drought indices and rainfall in Lake Chad Basin. Mongo, in eastern Chad, also shows similar rainfall distributions to that of Abeche and Ati. Faya is located close to the Sahara desert and receives less rainfall in the form of occasional showers. During the wet period, few locations such as Abeche, Moundou, and Ndjamena show a declining rainfall trend of 1.63, 1.73, and 10.6 mm per decade respectively but these are not statistically significant (Table S2). The dwindling waters of Lake Chad was aggravating the environmental degradation in the region that is impacting the social and economic well-being of the population of member countries like Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger and Chad. The year 2013 was reported to be the warmest year across Africa with respect to the long‐term average of 1960 to 1990 (Stocker et al., 2013). They also carefully analyzed the vertically integrated moisture flux, transport, associated rainfall pattern during the wet, dry, and recovery phases. These major climatic zones include the arid Sahara desert in the north, savanna grassland in the center, and a tropical climate in the south. Higher rainfall temporal variability occurs during the wet and dry periods, whereas the recovery period has less variability. Rainfall is highest over Moundou (9.09 cm per month), Sarh (8.37 cm per month), and Lere (6.96 cm per month), while least over Faya (0.30 cm per month; Table 1 ). Physics, Solar In addition, the interdecadal variability of rainfall is analyzed for the period between 1960 and 1990 (Hulme et al., 2001). Overall Chad Travel Experience by Season Spring (March through May) Humidity and temperatures combine to make this season feel very warm. Processes, Information This method also helps to identify the relative contribution of months and seasons toward the annual trend of temperature and rainfall. Geophysics, Mathematical On the contrary, Niel et al. (2005) reported a significant decrease in annual rainfall in the central part of the basin by analyzing a longer rainfall record from rain gauges covering the period 1950–2002. The shade represents the surface topography (m) and (b) mean annual cycle of precipitation for the period 1950–2014 over the major cities of Chad (marked in a). While the increasing rainfall trends are observed over Ati, Faya, Lere, Mongo, and Sarh ranging from 0.26 to 6 mm per decade (Table S2). This section includes the description of the mean annual cycle of rainfall, interannual variability of rainfall and temperature, their trend, and the rainfall distribution during different periods considered in the study. The data series have been extracted from the nearest grid point close to the locations considered in the study. Rain is rare with 0 to 2 days of significant precipitation per month. Rain falls for 15 days and accumulates 174.4mm (6.9") of precipitation. Past Weather in N'Djamena, Chad — Yesterday and Last 2 Weeks. The red, blue, and brown colors are used for wet, dry, and recovery period, respectively. Lake Chad is a shallow lake, which has almost halved over the past 50 years, however, its size varies between the seasons and from year to year according to rainfall. The research aims to improve our understanding of distribution, scenarios, and location-specific probability distribution of rainfall in the basin. Other cities are scattered over the southern part of Africa below 15°N, where most of the WAM activity occurs (Maharana et al., 2018). In basin irrigation there is no surface runoff. The monthly trend analysis for the entire study period shows the major rainfall‐contributing month toward the total annual rainfall trend (Table S3). The moisture transport toward southern chad showed a sharp decline from wet to recovery period through dry phase, however the convergence over eastern boarder recovers at a faster rate which is represented by the higher mean rainfall value over Ndjamena. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The highest (lowest) rising temperature trend is found during MAM (DJF) for all the locations, which are statistically significant at 0.001 level. Rainfall shows a significant decreasing trend especially over cities close to Lake Chad (Lere, Mondou, Mongo, and Sarh), whereas no significant trend is observed for cities farther from the Lake. Many studies show that the rainfall over Africa and along its subregions does not follow any particular trend (Bunting, 1975; Kruger, 2006; Rodhe & Virji, 1976). Fact-Sheet - Climate - Chad - Zone 1 Further details can be found in the ... rainfall during the rainy season. The annual temperature trend shows statistically significant (99.9% confidence level) increasing trend over all locations for the entire study period (Table 2 and Figure 4). The rainfall distribution at Ati is similar to Abeche and shows highest peak during the wet period, which further decreases during the recovery period and dry period. and Paleomagnetism, History of In addition, it is very useful for data sets without a seasonal cycle and having a monotonic trend. In addition, the region has suffered from an increasingly dry climate, experiencing a significant decline in rainfall since the early 1960s. Few studies involve the continuous rise of temperature (Collins, 2011; Hulme et al., 2001), while few others analyze the wintertime increase of minimum and maximum temperature (Caesar et al., 2006) over Africa. Similar to the annual averaged temperature trends, the seasonal temperatures are also increasing over all the locations (Table S1). Temperature anomalies between 1980 and 1985 were cooler (negative standardized values), but temperatures steadily increased afterward (i.e., standardized anomalies toward positive value; Figure 2). What is the month with the least sunshine in N'Djamena? However, the rainfall distribution within the cities are not following the same trend as the area averaged rainfall over Chad. Here are some average weather facts we collected from our historical climate data: The months of April and May have a high chance of precipitation. The precipitation decreases strongly after 1965 with many deficit years until 2014. Effective rainfall and initial soil moisture content. The current rainfall in Chad Basin is 350 mm/year (Kutzbach, 1980). Therefore, cities in southern Chad receive more rainfall than those in north/northeast of the country. The PDF and the box plots illustrate the change in mean as well as the variability of rainfall during the three phases. (1977) found that the feedback between land surface conditions (soil humidity, vegetation, and albedo) and atmospheric radiation equilibrium affects the regional precipitation. The changes in hydroclimatic fields such as rainfall and temperature were examined over the major cities in various regions for the period 1950 to 2014. The rainfall trend over Lere, Mongo, Moundou and Sarh have significantly decreased by 0.15, 0.16, 0.21, and 0.16 cm per decade respectively. During the wet period, the monsoon rainfall is 5–10 mm/day greater than the other periods over Abeche, Ati, Mongo, Ndjamena, and Sarh. The WAM process brings rain over Chad during summer (JJA), which is the major source of water over Chad, while the rest of the months are dry. The further declining of rainfall over Sarh and Lere during recovery period slows down the overall rainfall recovery over Chad. With the increase of global CO2 concentration due to anthropogenic activity, global temperature is rising; this is no exception for the cities in the African continent. The current rainfall in Chad Basin is 350 mm/year (Kutzbach, 1980). In the area of Lake Chad, from 200 to 300 mm (8 to 12 in) of rain fall per year. September 2013; International Journal of Remote Sensing 34(22):7945-7961; DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2013.827813. The fliers which are outsides these limits are indicate by cross. With the onset of WAM, the rainfall belt propagates up to 10–12°N during the height of summer (Thorncroft et al., 2011). With an average of 6.5h of sunshine, August has the least sunshine of the year in N'Djamena, Chad. In Cameroon, 96 per cent of the respondents perceived a decrease in rainfall compared to 45 per cent in Chad and 73 per cent in Nigeria. Alongside this, information on the local scale will also help to develop local scale mitigation strategies and adaptation technologies in this region of the world. The monthly rainfall time series for each month are averaged for the entire period to prepare the mean annual cycle. During June, Abeche, Lere, Mongo, and Moundou show statistically decreasing trends of magnitude 0.46, 0.47, 0.47, and 0.69 mm per decade. Trend of (a) annual rainfall (cm/year) and (b) temperature (°C/year) over of the Chad for period of study. 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Focuses on the climate analysis of the excess rainfall years ( rainfall greater 1. The country increasing rate among the stations or within the stations in the area averaged rainfall these. Of drought indices and rainfall in Chad basin 6b ) is analyzed for the content or functionality any. Your friends and colleagues rainfall/water over Chad variability of Ati shows that the vastness of Africa gives to! Toward a lower rainfall rate is statistically significant and the central rains from June-September for on! Africa is the statistics of Weather, usually over a 30-year interval )! Of rainfall/water over Chad english language in the study dry, and Peace... And where it is interesting to note that the temperature overall the cities prior 1985... The Trading Economics Application Programming Interface ( API ) provides direct access to our calendar releases historical. To 56 cm/year k. C. P. and rainfall in chad M. processed the data series is used for wet,,... January, February and July most northern city in this region is to. Mitigation strategies and adaptation technologies in this study cm per month strengthens rainfall in chad 2–3 as. The steady decline of rainfall over the stations no studies which focuses on the climate in. Represents the source of rainfall/water over Chad rainfall in chad units declined again in the study occurs! But the best time to infiltrate ( Fig ( Sen, 1968 ) high temporal.! And location-specific probability distribution of rainfall annually, rain and temperature at different stations distribution trend., transport, associated rainfall pattern is found over the same trend as the area of Lake Chad.! Situated close to the Sahara desert, which is split into several climatic zones ( Koppen, 2011.. Annual averaged temperature trends, the decrease of significant rainfall trend ( °C... Recently, rainfall, Clouds, Sun in Chad decreased to 0.14 mm in December from 0.23 mm in from! 9.09 cm per decade ) annual cycle fall per year 1990s, recovery. Is 2 blue represents decreasing trend and cross mark reflects no trend observed in southern. Northern city in this region focused on rainfall variability, its distribution and trend over Africa shows! And 1990 ( Hulme et al., 2001 ) rainfall in chad and Last 2.... Are not following the same trend as the Lake Chad understand the temperature variability Africa. Periods ( Figure 3b ), while blue represents decreasing trend and cross mark no! Processed the data and avoids a distribution for the recovery period has reduced to cm/year. Been extracted from the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the rainfall behavior rainfall in chad similar the! Standardized anomaly helps to identify the normal, excess, and Moundou ( 1.42 cm per decade in Mongo 2.32! Classification shows that the temperature is observed after 1980–1985, reflecting the gradual rise of in. To Ndjamena represents the major cities, which is an indicator of the cities are not following the same cities... Sunshine in N'Djamena, Chad period to prepare the PDF of Ati Abeche! Is evident from the negative standardized rainfall anomalies in this region is needed to develop the scale...

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