later vedic period


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Trade in textile, leather, leather goods, and dress materials were profitable. Side by side the Taittiniya Brahman explained the divine origin of kingship. This interactive animation explains the spread of the Vedic civilisation in India in the later Vedic Age. The women lost their honored position in the society. Deep ploughing by heavy iron plough drawn by bullocks was in vogue. The sacrifices like Rajasuya and Asvamedha were performed to signify the imperial sway of monarchs over the rivals. With the emergence of big kingdoms in the Later Vedic Age the struggle for supremacy among different states was of frequent occurrence. and went on steadily till they reached the southernmost extremity of the Peninsula in or sometime before fourth century B.C. This is one of the first origins of the word before it started to … Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. 41. The Rig-Vedic society was a free society. The Aitareya Brahmana explained the rational theory of election by common consent of origin of kingship. He realized taxes like “bali”, “sulka” and “bhaga”. The Vaishyas were hereditarily engaged in trade and the rich merchants were known as shresthins. The status and power of the Kshatriyas greatly increased due to constant war with the non-Aryans. The spread of Aryans over the whole of India completed before 400 B.C. By this rule the eldest son would inherit the property of the deceased father. A vaishya is called tribute-paying, meant to be beaten and oppressed at will. the Aryans thoroughly subdued the fertile plains watered by Rivers like: Yamuna, Ganges and Sadanira. Souls have to be born again and again and bear the fruits of the actions (Karma) of their previous lives. The period that followed Rig Vedic Age is known as Later Vedic Age. The practice of eating meat declined. In the later Vedic period joint family system was prevalent. Certain less important duties of the Rigvedic Period now became popular with the Common People. Later Vedic Period. They became masters of land and leaders of the Later Vedic society. He was considered impure. It was, however, one of the most formative eras of ancient Indian civilization. There were castes like Bratyas and Nishadas. Wheat was also cultivated. The Rig Vedic title of “Rajan” was replaced by the impressive titles like Samrat, Ekrat, Virat, Bhoja etc. This was the time when agriculture became prevalent. They could claim a divine origin by flaunting the sacred thread. For a long time the kshatriyas resisted the supremacy of the Brahmanas and claimed that the priest was only a follower of the king. Bull was regarded as useful for ploughing. The Atharvaveda mentions about ‘Patninam Sadan’ (women’s apartment). The sabha of the Rig Vedic Period died. Though mantras were chanted for welfare of the Sudras and though many of them became indispensable, as a whole the Sudras were a deprived class. Migration of Aryans | Aryan Migration Theory, Rig Vedic Society (Early Vedic Civilisation), Later Vedic Society (Later Vedic Civilization). Inland trade was carried on with the Kiratas inhabiting the mountains. The Vedic Age was a significant era in Ancient Indian History. But city life became more general in this age. But the Aryan colonization in the South was not as complete as in the north. Polygamy prevailed in the society. Varieties of crops like rice, barley, wheat, maize and oil seeds were raised. Later Vedic Period: (1000 BC – 600 BC) Region extent: » Aryans settlement covered virtually the whole Northern India during the later Vedic period. Gradually the practice of eating meat was declined. – The source of information of this period includes the archeological evidences as well as the literary source i.e. The priests divided people of the ancient India (of Later Vedic Age) into four groups, called Varnas. In the Later Vedic Civilization, they lost political and economic rights and were deprived from inheritance to properties. But the cultivator was not free from trouble. The Ganga river, by the time, occupied the proud place of the most revered and sacred river of India. Like political and social conditions, the economic condition of the Aryans of the later Vedic period also underwent significant changes. But They were not by any means the only Indo-Aryan individuals in northern India. Occasionally he delegated his judicial power to Adhyakshas. It explained how Indra, “though occupying a low rank among the gods, was created their king by Prajapati.”. 40. The Brahmanas of the later Vedic age were the intellectual and priestly class. It was thought that a widow had to perform a ‘symbolic’ self-immolution at the death of her husband. The period that followed the Rig Vedic age is known as later Vedic period. The position of women was degrading and evil […] They had to serve the other three castes. In the later Vedic period, the monarch as figurehead and power broker became more evident in the political setting of the time period. Neither the women nor the sudras had any right to property. They are debarred from the privileges which were enjoyed by the Brahmanas and kshatriyas. Killing of cow was looked with disfavor. Sudras were shooed out from holy places like sacrificial altar. Polyandry also appeared in a restricted way. But nishka was not ordinarily used. This age witnessed the composition of three later Veda Samhitas namely, the Samveda Samhita, the Yajurveda Samhita, the Atharvaveda Samhita as well as Brahmanas and the Upanishads of all the four Vedas and later on the two great epics—the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. As regards food, rice became the staple food of the Later Vedic Aryans. Sudras: The Sudras were looked with contempt. The emergence of caste system brought varieties of means of livelihood. The Brahmanas retained a high standard of excellence and knew the details of the rituals. The students received free boarding and lodging at the house of the Guru. Villages were just self-sufficient in food. In the work of administration the king was assisted by a group of officers who were known as Ratnins (Jewels). Many of the religious ceremonies, formerly practiced by the wife, were now performed by the priests. Semi-rigid Caste system: The caste system in the Later Vedic Civilization was not absolutely rigid. In order to assert the supremacy of their own class and divine origin, they introduced the rites of Upanayana or initiation of sacred thread for the Brahmins. But there is a marked tendency to maintain the purity of descent. Economy: » The main cultivated crops were rice, barley, beans, sesame and wheat. It was midway between the laxity of the Rig Vedic Age and the rigidity of the Age of the Sutras. Drinking of Sura or wine was still favored. The Later Vedic age witnessed the emergence of a new intellectual thought. in the house of the Gurus (teachers). Internal trade spread over land and river routes from Punjab to Bihar and Nepal. Later Vedic ages put a premium on morality and righteous conduct. The marriage rules became discriminating towards the bride. There are references about money lenders, chariot makers, dyers, weavers, barbers, goldsmiths, iron smiths, washer men, bow makers, carpenters, musicians etc. Liberally Ashram means halting place. The period that followed Rig Vedic Age is known as Later Vedic Age. The land of the Yamuna and Ganga in the east which became the new home of the Aryans rose into prominence. The king sought the aid and support of the Samiti on matters like war, peace and fiscal policies. lost their charm. They included the Bhagadugha (collector of taxes), the Suta (charioteer), the Akshavapa (superintendent of gambling), the kshattri (chamberlain), the Govikartana (king’s companion in the chase), the Palogala (courtier) the Takshan (Carpenter), the Rathakara (Chariot marker) in addition to the ecclesiastical and military officials like the Purohita (chaplain) the senani (general), and the Gramani (leader of host or of the village). Several large Kingdoms grew during this period, and they kept fighting with each other. During this period, several tribal groups and kingdoms came into existence. Punishments for crimes were severe. Caste System was slowly gaining its momentum. For how many years the early vedic period lasted? The … The condition of the Sudras was very miserable. Of the new kingdoms in the east, the most important were Kurus, Panchalas, Kasis, Kosalas and Videhas. The later Vedic ages also believed in the age-old concept of ‘Karma’ or action. In fact every Aryan performed a number of sacrifices under the supervision of the Brahmana priest. The concept of untouchability was germinating in the Later Vedic Society. To attain his “Paramapada” (highest step) became the goal of the rishis. Main occupation was agriculture. Rig Veda. The net result was that the Brahminas and the Kshatriyas jointly governed the Later Vedic Society. In the divine persona of Rudra the traits of these deities seem to have been syncretized into one supreme god. appeared in the religious firmament of the Later Vedic Period. In the later Vedic period Aryans settled in the region of Ganga-Yamuna. References to “ganas” or corporations and the “sreshthins” clearly speak of the formation of guilds or corporations for facilitating trade and commerce. An ascetic person renounced the worldly life and retired to the solitude and exercised all the ascetic practices with the belief that they would not only obtain heaven, but also develop, “mystic, extra-ordinary and superhuman faculties.” This asceticism was widely practiced in the Epic age. In the backward economy of the Later Vedic Age there was little scope of employing surplus labour of the Sudras sold as slaves. Most of the food items used during the Rig Vedic period also continued to be used even during the later-Vedic period. Economy: » The main cultivated crops were rice, barley, beans, sesame and wheat. During the later Vedic period women lost much of their position and privileges enjoyed during early Vedic period. 500 bce) The principal literary sources from this period are the Sama-, the Yajur-, and the Atharvaveda (mainly ritual texts), the Brahmanas (manuals on ritual), and the Upanishads (Upanisads) and Aranyakas (collections of philosophical and metaphysical discourses). The age of the Early Vedic period corresponds with the date of the composition of the Rigvedic hymns. With the progress of Aryan settlements in the eastern and southern part of India, the small tribal states of Rig Vedic period replaced by powerful states. The most common dishes taken by the people were Apupa, a cake made of rice, barley, ghee, rice cooked with milk and with beans. Vaisyas were engaged in trade, industry and agriculture, and animal husbandry. The term “Varna” was now used in the sense of caste not in the sense of colour in this age. They were written down many centuries later, long after the “Vedic Age… They had no right to approach the sacred fire, i.e., perform sacrifice, or to read the sacred texts. Regarding means of transport mention may be made of wagons drawn by oxen, chariots for war and sport and rough vehicle known as ‘bipatha’ for transport of goods. The later Vedic period is placed between 1000 BC and 600 BC. Prominent among these debts are the ones owed to the gods, sages and ancestors (Devaruna, Rishiruna and Pitruruna respectively). The Later Vedic Period prescribed a code of righteous conduct. The families were patriarchial. Various sub castes evolved in addition to the traditional four-castes. The Vedic texts may be divided into two broad chronological strata: i) The early Vedic or Regvedic period (1500-1000 B.C.). 42.For how many years the later vedic period lasted? The cultivator yielded two harvests a year. They composed hymns and performed sacrifices and also challenged the supremacy of Brahmanas. They were untouchables. There are stray examples to prove that change of caste was not absolutely impossible. It was the advent of great Vedic Period . Due to the spread of agriculture land became more valuable than cattle, unlike the Early Vedic period. Later Vedic Period . This age witnessed the composition of three later Veda Samhitas namely, the Samveda Samhita, the Yajurveda Samhita, the Atharvaveda Samhita as well as Brahmanas and the Upanishads of all the four Vedas and later on the two great epics—the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. As regards the condition of women in the Later Vedic Age, we find that the high position occupied by them in the Age of the Rigveda was no longer prevalent in this age. However, during the later Vedic period, Samhitas and Brahmanas mentions that the settlements covered virtually the whole of northern India. Perhaps trading contact with Mesopotamia was established. Several large Kingdoms grew during this period, and they kept fighting with each other. The king administered justice. attracted the people. Wool was used in addition to cotton. The Vedic age itself is divided into the Early Vedic Period (c.1500 – 1200 BCE) and Later Vedic Period (c.1100 – 500 BCE). Cotton growing was a profitable occupation. Ans. There were two theories regarding the origin of kingship. The first stage is known as the Rigvedic period or Early Vedic period and the later stage is known as the Later Vedic period. The vaisyas were superior to the sudras but their position was steadily deteriorating. All the valuable things in man’s life—philosophy, religion, science and code of conduct were all developed in the Vedic age. This age had excelled in every walks of life. Both inland and overseas trades were developed. Very soon Rudra came to be worshipped as ‘Mahadeva’ (great god) and the lord of animate beings (Pasupati). Discuss the four Varnas of the later vedic period. All these later Vedic texts were compiled in the Upper Gangetic basin in 1000—600 B.C. So, with the change in the economy, political structure, and society, Religion also changed. He had no right to enjoy property ownership. Ships and boats were also used as means of transport. And this led to the birth of Brahmanical Religion. The people worshipped them with less zeal. Ans. 500 bce) The principal literary sources from this period are the Sama-, the Yajur-, and the Atharvaveda (mainly ritual texts), the Brahmanas (manuals on ritual), and the Upanishads (Upanisads) and Aranyakas (collections of philosophical and metaphysical discourses). Now, the King ruled over an area of land called Janapada. More lands were brought under cultivation. The Aryans moved further east. The Aryans of the later Vedic period lived in the villages. Regular coinage was not started. So there developed the ideas of Tapas and Brahmacharya (celibacy) leading to the same or even more important results. The coins which were in circulation were “Nishka”, “Satamana” and “Krishnala”. A vast mass of vedic literature as well as a highly developed intellectual life speaks abundantly about a well planned system of education in the later Vedic Period. The Aitaraya Brahmana clearly indicates the absolute dependence of vaisyas on the two higher classes. And he redeem himself from these debts, if he worships the gods and performs Yajnas study Vedas, performs funeral ceremonies and Sraddha, etc. In the Later Vedic Society, the Aryans used the metals like lead, tin etc. Houses were made of wood. Vaishyas: The Arya-Vaishyas who were engaged in agriculture and trade were looked as inferior class during the period of Later Vedic Society. Specialization in industry developed. The Taittiriya Aranyakas refer about a special type of house known as ‘Dhandhani’ (treasure house). Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Vedic Period: The Rituals and Practices observed during the Vedic Period, Early Vedic Age : Origin, Social Life, Economic Life, Culture and Religion, Aryans and their Socio Economic Life | India | Vedic Period | History, Political and Social Organization of Vedic Period, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. After the twelfth century BCE, as the Rigveda had taken its last structure. The early Vedic or … Women during the Later Vedic Period were looked as inferior in status. The growth of the royal power was largely reflected in the enlarged outrage of the king. In the Rig Vedic age Yanjas were a simple affair which every householder could do. Later Vedic Society & Civilization Introduction: The life of the people of the Later Vedic Society was not as simple as that of the preceding Rig Vedic Society. The grandeur of the Rigvedic gods passed into oblivion, though we find in Atharvaveda the omniscience of Varuna or the beneficence of the Earth goddess. One should restrain himself from the sins like theft, adultery, and murder. The people thought deeply about the problems of creation, life and death and arrived at the conclusion that there is one ‘Brahma’ (one Unchanging Principle) beyond the universe—the creator and controller of the whole order. Those Aryans who still lived a nomadic life and were engaged in pasturing were regarded as fallen or Bratya, because they did not have a settled village life and they did not regularly perform the Yajna. Birth of a daughter became undesirable—for she was regarded as a source of misery. However, during the later Vedic period, Samhitas and Brahmanas mentions that the settlements covered virtually the whole of northern India. Inland and maritime trade both developed in this Age. The authority of the government in the later Vedic period was perhaps more democratic in the sense that the authority of the leaders of Aryan tribes was recognized by the king. Semi divinities like Apsara, Nagas, Gandharbas, Vidyadharas etc. According to Frasna Upanishada Adhikrita was the village officer and was lowest in the rank. This age had excelled in every walks of life. Vishnu, the preserver rose into Prominence during this period. But in the later Vedic age sacrifice became an important thing in worship. The Brahmanas and Kshatriyas emerged as the two leading castes out of the general mass of population, known as vaisyas. He was a thing, a chattel of the upper classes. The merchants used to form guilds. It is the universal soul or the Absolute “that dwelleth in everything that guideth all beings within, the Inward guide, Immortal.” After the death of a person his soul passes into another body and again into another and this process continues till it can be liberated from all its imperfections and merged in the Universal Soul. The upper classes particularly observed the cult of four Ashramas. The Aryans evidently preferred male child to female child. They progressed from semi-traveling life … The people became familiar with the navigation of the seas. At the completion of their study they paid fees (guru-dakshina) to the teachers. Carpentry was yet a lucrative profession. Later Vedic Period: (1000 BC – 600 BC) Region extent: » Aryans settlement covered virtually the whole Northern India during the later Vedic period. This was a moral compulsion to repay these loans. The later Vedic Aryans developed the concept of ascetic ideal of life as the rites and ceremonies were not the only means of attaining success in this world or bliss in heaven. The Brahmins had spread the belief that every man is born to repay certain loans in life. The traditional four classes such as Brahmins, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra, still existed during this period. ii) The later Vedic (1000-600B.C.). Changes of far greater significance were gradually taking place in their society. Most important change was the evolution of caste system. One should perform all these duties with selflessness. They discovered the … Many famous tribes of Rig Vedic period like Bharatas, Parus, Tritsus and Turvasas passed into oblivion and new tribes like the Kurus and Panchalas rose into prominence. In the later Vedas, Rudra is depicted to have inherited new monikers such as Bhava, Sarva, Mahadeva, and Shiva, most of which were probably names of regional or indigenous gods of non-Aryan of non-Vedic origin. He has to repay the debts to his gods, to the rishis, to the munis, to men, to the ancestors and to the lower creatures. And this led to the birth of Brahmanical Religion. In case of inheritance of property the law of primogeniture was applied. The king had absolute power. Due to the spread of agriculture land became more valuable than cattle, unlike the Early Vedic period. Dowry system became popular. ii) The later Vedic (1000-600B.C.). As such, the questions from this topic have always been featured in the history segment of the UPSC Prelims.. So, with the change in the economy, political structure, and society, Religion also changed. He could even disinherit his son. The unit of value of goods was a gold bar called nishka. Elephants and horses were also used. By their superior learning some kshatriyas raised themselves to the status of a Brahmana. Sudras were not sold or purchased in the society. The Vedic age was a “dark age” in Indian history, in that it was a time of violent upheaval, and no written records from that period have survived to shed light on it. Though we hear the names of Gargi and Maitreyi whose scholarship was recognized by the society as whole women lost their earlier status. New gods like Siva, Rupa, Vishnu, Brahma etc. Later Vedic period (c. 1100 – c. 500 BCE) After the 12th century BCE, as the Rigveda had taken its final form, the Vedic society, which is associated with the Kuru-Pancala region but were not the only Indo-Aryan people in northern India, transitioned from semi-nomadic life to settled agriculture in north-western India. For 500 years. also came into being. Cattle still continued to be the chief source of wealth. This age witnessed the composition of three later Veda Samhitas namely, the Samveda Samhita, the Yajurveda Samhita, the Atharvaveda Samhita as well as Brahmanas and the Upanishads of all the four Vedas and later on the two great epics—the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The great Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BCE – 1300 BCE) was disappearing, One the other side a magnificent civilization was coming to its own. They were written down many centuries later, long after the “Vedic Age”, but much of what we know about this period of ancient Indian history is as a result of the faithful word-of-mouth transmission of the Vedas from one generation to another. People had a firm belief that gods must submit to the sacrifice if properly performed. The collections of Vedic hymns or mantras are known as the Samhitas. These titles marked the growth of imperialism and feudal ideas. Improved methods of tilling the land by deep ploughing, manuring and sowing with better seeds was known to the Later Vedic Aryans. A Sudra had no right what-so-ever in society. He occupied the place of Varuna, as the most sublime among the celestials. During the Later Vedic Age (1000-600 B.C.) Agriculture was the principal occupation of the people. Later Vedic Period or Painted Grey Ware Phase (1000 BC – 600 BC) During this time, the Aryans moved eastwards and occupied western and eastern UP (Kosala) and Bihar. They were yet in a stage of food- gathering man and lived on fruits and animal meat of forests. Dangers of insects and damage of crops through hail-storm very badly affected the land of kurus and compelled many people to migrate. The Upanishads (/ uː ˈ p æ n ɪ ˌ ʃ æ d z, uː ˈ p ɑː n ɪ ˌ ʃ ɑː d z / ; Sanskrit: उपनिषद् Upaniṣad [ˈʊpɐnɪʂɐd]) are late Vedic Sanskrit texts of religious teaching and ideas still revered in Hinduism. The Sudras were held in great contempt. 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